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During the Second Aliyah, between 19, there were 35,000 new immigrants, primarily from Russia.
During World War I, the conditions for the Jews in the Ottoman Empire worsened.
The Old Yishuv developed after a period of severe decline in Jewish communities of the Southern Levant during the early Middle Ages, and was composed of three clusters.
The oldest group consisted of the Ladino-speaking Sephardic Jewish communities in Galilee and the Judeo-Arabic speaking Musta'arabim who settled in Eretz Yisrael in the Ottoman and late Mamluk period.
) is the term referring to the body of Jewish residents in the land of Israel (corresponding to Ottoman Syria until 1917, OETA South 1917–1920 and later Mandatory Palestine 1920–1948) prior to the establishment of the State of Israel.
The term came into use in the 1880s, when there were about 25,000 Jews living across Land of Israel, then comprising the southern part of Ottoman Syria, and continued to be used until 1948, by which time there were about 700,000 Jews there.
The Old Yishuv was thus generally divided into two independent communities – the Sephardim (including Musta'arabim), mainly constituting the remains of Jewish communities of Galilee and the four Jewish holy cities, which had flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; and the Ashkenazim, whose immigration from Europe was primarily since the 18th century.
The 'Old Yishuv' term was coined by members of the 'New Yishuv' in the late 19th century to distinguish themselves from the economically dependent and generally earlier Jewish communities, who mainly resided in the four holy cities of Judaism, and unlike the New Yishuv, had not embraced land ownership and agriculture.
A distinction is sometimes drawn between the Old Yishuv and the New Yishuv: The Old Yishuv refers to all the Jews living there before the aliyah (immigration wave) of 1882 by the Zionist movement.The Jewish plantation owners had previously hired Arab workers who accepted low wages and were very familiar with agriculture.The leaders of the Zionist movement insisted that plantation owners (those who arrived in the First Aliyah) only hire Jewish workers and grant higher wages. However, this caused some turmoil in the Yishuv for there were those who felt that they were discriminating against the Arabs just as they had been discriminated against in Russia.The Arabs became bitter from the discrimination despite the small number of Arabs that were affected by this.The First Aliyah was the very beginning of the creation of the New Yishuv. The immigrants were inspired by the notion of creating a national home for Jews.
Most of the Jewish immigrants came from Russia, escaping the pogroms, while some arrived from Yemen.